How will the art world redefine its use of space post-pandemic?

 

As Covid-19 modifies consumer behaviour in all sectors of society, conversations in the art world have centred around the necessity of physical space – what will happen, institutionally and artistically, if space for art as we’ve come to know it is no longer available? The design of rooms, larger sequences of space, audience movement and more are all suddenly open topics of discussion.

 

Fears about how physical spaces will operate have been on the forefront of everyone’s minds since the pandemic began. Agile work environments, open plans, hot desking, social integration and other quality and performance improvements could now become things of the past, unfortunately moving the industry backwards in fostering healthy and productive work, gallery and collateral spaces. While opportunities for social and professional interaction in the art world have clearly been limited by Covid-19, the outlook is not as clear for evolution of the art world’s physical spaces.

 

Re-imagining the Landscape

 

At this time, many industry professionals are realising that work can in fact be completed at home instead of in the office. However, the art world is unique in that it’s an incredibly social industry reliant on social spaces. For participants in the industry, there is a clear need for belonging and participating offline. Take for example, those who attend auctions. Yes, many who attend are seeking out a specific art work they’d like to bid on, but for the most part, auctions are about the experience and the feelings of exclusivity synonymous with attending such an event in an intimate space. There is something enchanting about sitting next to others at auction in a high-intensity atmosphere, physically raising paddles as bids soar into the millions. Some are attracted to the competitive theatre of it all. Which makes me wonder, will these interactions and experiences ever be replicated online?

 

This past summer, a series of Global Hybrid Evening Sales of Impressionist, Modern, Post- War and Contemporary art took place amongst auction houses Sotheby’s, Christie’s and Philips. While all three auction houses produced new virtual platforms for the summer season, Sotheby’s Hybrid sale was particularly cinematic and well-designed. The  seemingly high-budget production included a series of collateral from pre-filmed introductory videos by the evening’s auctioneer, Oliver Barker, Senior Director and Chairman of Sotheby’s Europe, along with rendered simulations of the space. A multi- camera set-up catered to online viewers across the globe. Collectively, the Hybrid sales raised $709.2 million, comfortably within the pre-sale estimates of $623.6 million to $738.8 million. This signaled a positive return to the auction market for international buyers. Although the ‘big three’ auction houses proved they are able to field bids from telephone, online, and in-room, with the added implementation of immersive catalogues and additional vehicles for bidding, will these factors be enough to compete with the thrill of offline auctions in the upcoming season?

 

How will the art world redefine its use of space post-pandemic? ArtTactic

Limitless audiences. Sotheby’s rendering of its new online auction platform.

 

Aside from auction sales, the importance of relationships and interactions is underscored by a plethora of offline industry events such as art fairs, gallery openings and previews. That being said, there is a strong global interconnectedness within the sector that has been building for many years online from gallery arms and auction houses’ e-commerce abilities with multi-city expansions, to fairs operating offices as global organisations – all of which increase the accessibility of art to span globally. David Tung, Director of Lisson Shanghai notes Covid-19 may mark a turning point in the way we think about traditional art market models. With technology, Lisson Gallery is able to “do a tour of up to 500 people at one time (theoretically this could be limitless) and work with galleries across four cities”. With the interest in digital models now increasing, from social media followings to welcoming new digital visitors, art world bodies through digital investment can now communicate and have access to a wider scope of audience. This accessibility is something that now the whole world can have access to, drawing old and new audiences in comparatively to the in-person sales model.

 

In my own research, I’ve recently started looking at digital space like filled real estate – where entities are holistically creating more content – from interviews, films, to virtual rooms. We’re no longer just looking at the artwork, but now… artist interviews, studios, personal spaces and new forms of content. This surge of alternative content creation is novel, as there was never a need for viewers to absorb this amount of online content pre-Covid-19. This new form of interaction provides viewers the opportunity to see things they otherwise might not have offline. For example, virtually visiting artist studios is a curated intimate experience that is readily available for immediate access and absorption by viewers. A lot of effort is placed into creating an experience as real as possible – in a way, online platforms are re-designing a whole new user experience for purchasing art online.

 

Approaching the design of future spaces should be thought of not as a back-step but rather an improvement. This could be promising for buyers as they begin to see the intimate and personal connections that can be fostered through digital realms. With virtual and physical worlds rapidly merging, the emergence of innovative platforms may be the reality moving forward.

 

Codes and Restrictions

 

While we wait for the return to the physical space – reminding ourselves of our favourite museums and galleries – it may be a while until new policies and architectural codes are implemented. The redesign of physical spaces may actually be optional for the time being. However, through the lens of an employer, in order for employees to come back they will have to provide a provision of safety that’s guaranteed. This may mean the restriction of spaces to prevent social movements, screens for social distancing measures – a luxury where deliberate spacing was once driven mostly by concept. Physical spaces from salesrooms, galleries, museums, and auction houses will need to rethink floor plans, and where objects are placed to minimise the risk of transmission – new protocols that are inherently part of the new workspace and art world behind the scenes.

 

However, as restrictions are loosened, we can’t imagine everyone will implement large changes in these spaces. For the time-being, we see numerous visitor protection guidance in place, from limited hours, to allotted time slots and ticketing, staggered entries, along with face mask provisions and occupancy restrictions to a quarter of full capacity. Other physical spaces have remained closed in efforts to support various cities’ efforts to contain Covid-19.

 

Post-Covid, we may be more likely to see an advent of museums and institutions merging the physical space with the virtual realm – exploring ways to creatively present work online during the pandemic. Virtually, institutions have the ability to drive in traffic numbers in the thousands – incomparable to its footfall counterpart. Walk-in traffic for galleries, museums and physical retailers have dropped off in recent months, transforming the behaviour of buyers and museum goers. Online-only shows and appointment visits seem to be the movement in the foreseeable future, limiting numbers for the general public. However MoMA is implementing ‘pay as you wish’ admissions opposed to its $25 ticket in hopes of encouraging footfall.

 

How will the art world redefine its use of space post-pandemic? ArtTactic

Codes and restrictions from the Interior Design, Reference + Specification Book.

 

The implementations of additional code and restrictions may further impact visitor numbers for the museums and galleries we love so much, but whether this will be enough to sustain the budget and operations levels and offset some of the financial damage due to Covid-related closures is uncertain.

 

The heightened need for art and personal spaces

 

A question I’ve been asking myself lately is ‘do we need to return to the physical space?’ What can employees and consumers do at the office or commercial spaces that they can’t do at home?

 

Indoor environments are a critical component of well-being, productivity, and safety – particularly the things we see every day. This experience has heightened the need of personal interests, hobbies and intimate spaces in the home particularly. Artcurial’s specialist in design and Art Deco, Sabrina Dolla, noted buyers’ appetites hadn’t appeared to diminish during lockdown but were sharpened.

 

Although the scope of physical spaces is large in the art world and my perspective just briefly covered some aspects, maneuvering through a global pandemic is new to all of us, and we are all learning how to best optimise our lives to fit this current reality. What will the lasting output from these last several months be on the industry? I often think about the next generation and what kind of climate they’re born into and this new sense of normalcy. It’s difficult designing a solution for something where we don’t know what’s going to happen, but it’s been uplifting to see the voices of artists and those in the artistic community continuing their practice. It’s about the little things in life that spark the most joy and supporting artists and those behind the scenes that make the art world turn.

 


Joanna Hirsch is Product Manager/Head of Content of AucArt, a London-based hybrid online auction house and gallery featuring international emerging artists. She manages website content, design & development, and communications. Joanna has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Spatial Design from London College of Communication and a Master’s degree in Art Business with distinction from the Sotheby’s Institute of Art. 

State of the Community: Art in Quarantine

 

One must look no further than Sci-Fi classics such as Blade Runner or Back to the Future to know that by 2020 we were supposed to be living in a world full of flying cars, holograms, and Self-Lacing Nikes. Our reality is instead much closer to a world described by Contagion. In the midst of a pandemic, humanity has been forced back inside; scrolling through social media, re-watching the Office, and using video chat services such as Zoom, Skype and Facetime to connect with everyone from bosses to loved ones. Looking at the pandemic through the lens of my own industry, I wondered: what are the implications of Covid-19 for the artists and the greater world of Fine Art? Historically, in times of unrest, artists have often flocked to creative havens like the salons of Paris after World War I, or in New York’s ‘Village’ in the wake of World War II. More recently the emergence of the Young British Artists in London has seen young artists coming together during art school. What do all of these moments of explosive creativity have in common and what does it have to do with living life six feet apart?

 

In my Master’s dissertation for Sotheby’s Institute of Art, I looked extensively at the statistical significance of groupings within the Pop Art Movement, comparing the fortunes of British Pop Artists and their American counterparts. I defined Network Strength as being based on “shared galleries, shared education, and any shared groups or connections within the movement.” Combining aggregate scores of network strength, institutional prestige, and market rating, I was able to create a multivariate hybrid index comparing the two adjacent movements. While the British Pop Art Movement predated the Americans, it was not Richard Hamilton that has become a market bell-weather, but instead Andy Warhol who found significance in the local proximity of the group of American’s living in New York City in the 60’s.

 

In today’s context, what will happen when artists are contained to their living spaces? The ability for artists to group in any manner has been taken away, or at the very least, restricted to six feet due to stringent quarantine measures around the world. In the wake of social distancing and a worldwide lockdown, galleries have been forced to adopt new ways of connecting with both artists and buyers with virtual gallery visits, salons, artist talks, round tables, art fairs, and openings. So how have artists coped with being alone?

 

During my own time in lockdown, I reached out to artists in both the US and UK practicing in a range of different mediums and creative fields to survey how they’re connecting with each other and with the wider art world at this time. I chose to speak with artists at the beginning of their careers as it is during this time that they are most likely to create meaningful connections and/or networks of fellow artists and art world contacts.

 

Virtual Communities

 

With the absence of studio space and their own proverbial East Village haunts, today’s artists have banded together online. Charlie Goering and Alex Lewis touched on the topic of the absence of gallery space and how artists have found new and creative ways to collaborate from isolation. Goering provided his own unique insight as an artist based almost solely on Instagram by noting that he has utilized the platform to build a following and connect with artists prior to the international lockdown. Long accustomed to facilitating sales, connecting with galleries and keeping up with other artists nationally and internationally, Goering noted that “without Instagram I am not so sure I would have the confidence to live and work outside New York or Los Angeles.” As a student, Lewis benefitted greatly from his school community with Zoom sessions with his fellow classmates, noting that there was a diminishment in effectiveness to these sessions when students would turn off their camera, a new social faux-pas borne out of the increased use of video chats. Like Goering, Lewis also noted having used Instagram to reach out to other artists not previously contacted on Instagram.

 

On a larger scale, in a recent article, the Art Newspaper’s Louisa Buck highlighted the #artistsupportpledge, a charitable initiative created by artist Matthew Burrows in support of fellow artists and makers. Every time an artist reaches £1,000 of sales, they pledge to buy £200 of work from other artists. Having raised nearly £20 million, the #artistsupportpledge on Instagram has garnered over 100,000 posts. Providing an accessible platform for all artists, regardless of gallery, practice, or connections to help each other through tough times, the Artist Support Pledge is the arts community at its best. Other creative projects born from Covid-19 include the aptly named Shelter in Place Gallery, a platform created by Eben Haines to allow artists to submit miniaturized versions to larger works to be displayed in a model structure. With large scale art hard to create at home, Haines’ was able to support the Greater Boston community of artists with help from a grant from the City of Boston by providing artists with a stipend and a way to create and show work. In a more whimsical solution to the lack of gallery space, artist Nicole Shinn launched a show based on the hit video game “Animal Crossing, New Horizons” with artists pixelating their art into works to be hung in a virtual space, with even an interpretation of Marina Abramovic’s The Village is Present showing on “opening night” in the game. Subverting the limited space of a bricks and mortar gallery, Shinn’s use of Animal Crossing allowed her to include over 20 other artists, a feat many galleries could not accommodate on their wall space.

 

Covid-Creativity

 

Despite being forced to create makeshift studios at home, artists have also been blessed with even more time to think and create works in their newfound surroundings. Alex Lewis, and Yulia Iosilzon provided insight on how quarantine has affected their ability to create works without access to their studios by finding ways to work at home, or, in Lewis’ case, investing in a pottery wheel and finding a garage to create a makeshift workspace. Iosilzon on the other hand, was able to use her new found free time to find a small Italian manufacturer to fulfill a long-held idea to place her works on bespoke blankets. Others like Armand Kazem found himself more aware of social unrest during this time, referencing both the Black Lives Matter Protests and the annexation of the West Bank. Expounding on this further and how it affected his own work, Kazem stated “that one of the main aims is to talk to people” and also, “it (art) should be something more”, referencing such things as climate change or wealth inequality.

 

Digital Dash

 

While many artists have grown accustomed to posting their works on Instagram, the loss of wall space has forced many to meet new challenges of placing their work in the new digital world. Touching upon this, Iosilzon noted that learning how to best represent her works in a virtual viewing room posed a new challenge, a newfound conundrum facing artists and the wider art world. Despite technologies best efforts, digitizing an artwork can still prove to be challenging, painstakingly combing the work on a screen for colour discrepancies, issues with lighting, and ensuring the work is presented in a manner that attempts to replicate the walls of the gallery. While many of the top galleries and auction houses were able to provide these virtual services pre-lockdown, Loic Gouzer has progressed further into the digital space by rolling out Fair Warning, a new invite-only app-based auction that offers a single lot to its users to purchase at one time.  Gouzer’s foray into the online marketplace is intriguing as its success may signal to others a new route away from the traditional auction/gallery space. While many smaller galleries have been slow to take on the costly practice of digitizing their works, quarantine has forced many to reevaluate their position. Relying on their wall spaces and PDF’s to sell work, many were unaccustomed to the process of digitizing artworks and as a result have had to rapidly learn how to adapt – eschewing time consuming and oftentimes expensive three dimensional virtual spaces for live “viewings” on Facebook Live or Instagram Live.

 

Today’s Future

 

In 1977 Andy Warhol wrote in his memoir: “they always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself.”  In the past, creatives like Fitzgerald sat with Picasso in the salons of Paris, Warhol shared drinks with Merce Cunningham in Greenwich Village, Angus Fairhurst invited Damien Hirst to show with him in London. In 2020, drawing on new sources of network strength in the absence of coffeeshops, bars, galleries or studios, today’s artists have been forced back into the confines of their homes. But with this new-normal comes an opportunity for explosive creativity, in both art and digital connections. It seems artists will always find a way to create (even if that means a slightly more cluttered kitchen table, repurposed garage, or a video game). Artists are making the most of it, utilizing this time to check-in with their peers, discuss social unrest, helping other artists, and meeting new people. Coupled with the art world’s move to digital, this signals we might be getting closer to that 2020 we were supposed to be living in… flying cars, Self-Lacing Nikes, and all. Today’s young artist communities are creating a way forward.

 


Currently based in the United States, Skylar Breiner graduated from Wittenberg University with a degree in Political Science; Chinese Foreign Policy. Transitioning from his background in policy, Breiner took a job at Art Design Consultant’s, becoming interim Business Director. Wanting to continue his education in Fine Art, Breiner pursued an Art Business degree from Sotheby’s Institute of Art ’s Master’s Program in London where he graduated with distinction. For his dissertation he created a multivariable index ranking British and American Pop Artists based on their network, net worth, and institutional representation. Having recently interned at ArtVisor, he is excited to continue collaborating within the Fine Art space.

The Call for Change

Guerrilla Girls, Guerrilla Girls Talk Back © courtesy www.guerrillagirls.com and part of the Tate Collection

 

Several years ago, I realized that the art world had a major problem.

 

In my fourth year of studying as a fine artist at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, I decided to sign up for a new extracurricular course titled “Art and the World of Big Money”. The course was taught by a part time teacher and director at a big gallery in downtown Chicago and focused in giving students a comprehensive understanding of the structure of the art market. Fifteen minutes into our first lecture, the professor began to create a diagram on the dry erase board depicting “The Life and Career of an Artist”.

 

Drawing that diagram took him roughly an hour. He went through all the motions: starting the “artist” off at undergraduate art school, followed by graduate art school, suggesting that the artist utilizes this time to build and refine their practice. He demonstrated that the next step for the artist’s career is to be picked up by galleries that either find the artist through solo and group shows, exhibitions, and even sometimes press. As the artist progresses and their networks’ expand, these galleries would also gradually get more established over time, became more global instead of local, and more art world players would be added to the scenario: such as art critics, writers, collectors, buyers, institutions, and even auction houses.

 

All of these variables help create name and brand recognition for the artist over time; the step in the process is to eventually end up in major museums and cultural institutions. Eventually, the end of the diagram leads to the artist’s death, and, following the artist’s death, that career can be brought even further through legacy, foundations, and ultimately, a permanent place in collections and history.

 

As a developing artist myself, I sat there a bit overwhelmed as I stared at a literal template for a future that could be mine.

 

I didn’t think about anything else until a peer to my right, who had been feverishly jotting down her notes the entire class, raised her hand and asked, “What happens if the artist isn’t good?”

 

Without hesitating, the teacher blatantly responded, “Oh, that doesn’t affect much”, implying that you don’t necessarily have to be a good artist to successfully follow this trajectory. With the right connections and the right amount of funding, any artist can technically become a well-known artist.

 

This floored me at the time. Ultimately, it confused me that any artist with enough of a network could flow with ease through this formula and theoretically end up in a major collection somehow. Here I was, trying to be the “best” artist I could possibly be, spending sometimes up to ten hours a day honing my practice in hopes that, if I spent enough time, it would eventually lead to the outcome of a “good artist” and therefore, a “successful artist”.

 

This was my wakeup call that this was not always the case.

 

Today, my commentary is not about “good” or bad” art, as I have come to accept that art is often subjective. Rather, I am addressing the system that fuels the art industry, the people who run it, the actions they take to help make the system the way it is, and question my own active participation in it. It’s no secret that the art world has been mythicized by its “Wild West” rules and regulations, lack of transparency, Big Money, and strict adherence to the status quo. But due to recent events (a worldwide pandemic and the Black Lives Matter movement – just to name a few), these disparities have been highlighted. I wonder, is there room for the art world’s antiquated systems any longer? Is the art world out of touch with reality?

 

Call to Action

 

The past month, in particular, has been a critical time for many institutions and art brands to reevaluate their role in not just the art world, but in the world at large. For instance, the Black Lives Matter movement (BLM), which has been reignited in the United States following the murder of George Floyd at the hands of four police officers in Minneapolis, is not just an American issue, nor just an issue of police brutality. More people around the world are beginning to wake up and realize the deep-rooted, systemic flaws within their institutions. These monumental movements demonstrate the criticality of our voices in society. Especially in a time like this.

 

Art that Critiques Its Own Industry

 

This call for change is not new. Artist activist groups like The Guerilla Girls have been making work specifically about these disparities in the art world since as far back as the eighties.

 

The anonymous group of female artists are notorious for creating satirical, yet factual, public art that exposes gender, racial, and systematic inequalities within institutions and its patrons. In an interview conducted in 2015, Frida Kahlo, a member of the Guerilla Girls who has hidden her real identity by adopting the title of one of the great female artists from the past, asked the rhetorical question, “If museums fall into that system of collecting the most expensive art and being all about the art market, is that really telling the story of production of our culture? I don’t think so, because if you look at that, billionaire art collectors are running the show, and they are a very homogenous group. They are far more homogeneous than artists are”.

 

The Call for Change ArtTactic

The Guerilla Girls outside of Whitechapel Gallery. Photo: © David Parry (from www.whitechapelgallery.org)

 

New groups, like the New York based Artists for Workers (AFW) follow the same mindset. AFW has recently formed in 2020 in light of some museums’ responses, or lack thereof, to the BLM protests and political turmoil. “Different crisis, same commitment to the status quo” is read on countless posters that have been plastered onto the walls of boarded up museums during the protests in New York. Many museums and art brands have been put on blast for their elitist-driven attitudes and alleged ignorance to major social issues, such as allowing racism and sexism in their work culture.

 

The artists and art professionals who challenge their own market have increased in popularity during this time, particularly through their social media and online presence.

 

 

Rethinking the Definition of “Cultural Institutions”

 

While some were criticized for staying quiet for too long, many major cultural establishments, patrons, and brands began speaking out in solidarity of major social issues and even going as far as addressing their own mistakes and past wrong-doings.

 

The Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago (MCA), was recently criticized in 2019 when a photo was exposed of their close ties and donations to the Chicago Police Department. Due to recent protests and petitions, however, the MCA publically announced in early June that they would cut ties with police until reforms are made to the Chicago Police Department. The MCA was the third largest major art institution to cut ties with its cities police department, along with The Walker Art Center and The Minneapolis Institute of Art in Minneapolis.

 

A myriad of announcements like the MCA’s go on:

 

On June 23, Melissa Chiu, Director of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington D.C, announced new initiatives to change and implement new methods of operations. “We are responsible for supporting and building an equitable society within and beyond our walls”, Chiu says, in an effort to announce a new way of thinking as a cultural institution.

 

The Tate networks even publicized the data on its own demographics of its workers after issuing a statement that addressed the power of their own platform and influence as a voice in the community.

 

Aside from admitting flaws, galleries and museums have also taken the opportunity to promote and post more socially aware content in tandem with the current BLM protests and political turmoil.

 

A collective of major international institutions such as the Tate, Palazzo Grassi, and Stedelijk Museum, collaborated with the American Black artist, Arthur Jafa, to live stream his 7-minute video “Love is the Message, The Message is Death” (2016) for 48 hours over the weekend of June 26. The video itself serves as a powerful message on racism and black resilience.

 

Galleries, like Superchief Gallery, based in New York City, Los Angeles, and Miami, have completely dedicated its efforts to helping support BLM and has become an active participant in spreading important information. “WE ALL NEED A CHANGE IN LEADERSHIP”, they wrote on an Instagram post, accompanied by an IGTV video of an activist discussing the governments denial of systematic racism. Posts regarding their own artwork at the gallery have not been seen for weeks.

 

While the sentiment behind the increasing number of statements and calls to action to “do better” have been astounding, they have also come with their fair share of backlash, and for a good reason.

 

The real change comes with time and critical action.

 

You Say You Can Change: Now What?

 

With any change, comes opportunities for growth and improvement. We cannot keep this momentum without continued internal reflection and critically acting on it.

 

We must constantly acknowledge that the art industry directly benefits off of statements that artists have made, political or not. These artists, as well as the greater public, look to our cultural institutions to spark innovation for change, progressiveness, and creativity. We must do better.

 

We, as thought-leaders, as a community of art lovers and statement makers,  have an important role to play. The art world will not move forward unless we right our wrongs. Addressing our own problems is one of the hardest things to do, but our words ring hollow if we do not do so.

 


Mattie Martinez is an American artist and art industry professional. She received a four-year merit scholarship from the leading American arts university, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where she received her Bachelor of Fine Arts in Painting and Visual Communications. Following her Bachelor’s in Art, Martinez became increasingly passionate about the art industry itself, and gained a Master’s degree in Art Business from Sotheby’s Institute of Art in London. There, she completed a dissertation which researched online marketing techniques within the Art World and analyzed the industries’ utilization of social media platforms such as YouTube. Over the years, Martinez has also worked with a wide variety of art institutions and companies in major cities such as Chicago, London, and New York.

Making the most of it: collaborations of emerging artists and independent brands

 

The collaborations between brands and artists have existed in the market for a long time, spanning not even decades, but almost a century, though they were predominantly seen in the realm of luxury. One recalls the famous Lobster dress, created by Salvador Dalí and Elsa Schiaparelli in the 1930s and Yves Saint Laurent’s modernist dress inspired by Piet Mondrian’s artworks in 1965. Since then international luxury conglomerates have made a habit of collaborating with artists on limited editions of different products ranging from perfume bottles, bags and suitcases to full-blown fashion collections.

 

It is interesting to see how nowadays, especially during the lockdown, this trend has become prominent in the milieu of emerging artists and small as well as medium-sized independent brands, who become more and more inventive in their marketing strategies. One sadly notes that it is often the smaller and less protected market players who have to jump many hoops to survive, let alone thrive. However, scarcity can lead to brilliant outcomes and shifts in the traditional modus operandi of art, fashion, beauty and lifestyle markets.

 

THE TREND SHIFT

 

Up until the COVID crisis the examples of artists collaborating with luxury brands, owned by international conglomerates, were plenty, and each fashion season was bound to bring several more. Only for autumn/winter 2019, the author was able to distil eleven outstanding collaborations not only of the traditional ‘LVMH meets A Famous Artist’ kind, but more niche ones such as Iris van Herpen and Anthony Howe or Pyer Moss and Derrick Adams. French sociologist Jean-Noël Kapferer remarks that such ‘artification’ of luxury products is as much a marketing move aimed to grow the brands’ awareness and expand their audience, but also a transformation of non-art into art. Bags, perfumes, dresses and watches transgress the realm of pure commerce and obtain symbolic value, as well as become relevant for the future generations by acquiring a semi-iconic status (Kapferer on luxury: how luxury brands can grow yet remain rare, 2015). However, as fashion weeks and production speeds came to an abrupt halt in spring 2020, it is yet to see whether the conventional fashion machinery will be brought back to its vertiginous speed in the post-COVID era.

 

The collaborations’ tool has at some point become prominent in more niche segments of the fashion market, just as the market itself, according to different researchers, began prioritising low-volume niche brands and paying less attention to high-volume mainstream ones. While conventional luxury brands owned by established international conglomerates can only partially be categorised as high-volume as their distribution demands high exclusivity, many ‘wannabe’-luxury brands started producing large volumes of ‘premium mediocre goods’ (a brilliant definition coined by fashion journalist Eugene Rabkin). Such abundance of widespread offers gives certain consumers a desire to move to greener pastures, shop at smaller brands and have access to truly exclusive offers, limited in quantity, created with unique designs and often providing an entry point to the art market.

 

THE MOTIVATION

 

In conversations with owners of small and medium independent brands as well as to emerging artists, several motivational patterns for collaboration began to emerge. The first and most obvious is a desire to expand awareness about a brand or artistic practice. The initiator can be a commercial brand offering a collaborative project, an intermediary agency acting in the interests of a client or an artist pitching a collaboration. Partnerships are likely to be successful when the brand and the artist share similar values or have a resemblance in their public image. However, potential partners tend to gravitate towards counterparts with substantial social capital, brand awareness and market visibility to enhance their brand and cross-pollinate target audiences. Such is the case of Piglet, the British brand of linen bedding and pyjamas, whose marketing budget is mostly allocated to digital and social media. Its founder Jessica Mason needed a strong PR push and approached the artist Alexa Coe with the suggestion to create a series of drawings, which were subsequently embroidered on the pockets of two types of pyjama sets. A similar strategy was chosen by Molly Goddard and Joel Jefferey from Desmond & Dempsey, another brand of cotton and linen loungewear, and the chosen artist was Venetia Berry, suggested by a PR agency working with the brand. All the parties confessed that the collaborations were rather well-received due to the similarity of the brands and artists’ core values and creative styles.

 

The second motivation underpinning the first, more practical and commercial aim, and registering as very prominent is an opportunity for both the artist and the brand to broaden their horizons and to create something new. The novelty may be in the introduction of a new product or the adoption of a new technique or medium by the artist. Such reasons motivate Ana Kerin, who is both sculptor and ceramicist as well as the owner of KANA London, a ceramics boutique and series of pottery workshops in Hackney. Kerin likes wearing two hats and collaborates both with brands as an artist and with artists as a commissioner. She says collaborations open her mind and give her ideas that might have never come if not for a brand counterpart arriving with a brief for a limited edition. This was the case of her project with Lisa Mehydene, owner of edit.58, a homewares boutique. Mehydene saw Kerin’s rustic plates and pinch pots at a private dinner and fell in love with the authenticity of the pieces. Same goes for the cases where Kerin approaches artists with ideas of creating limited editions of her products. One of the most successful collaborations to date was with Alexa Coe who is on the rise these days and collaborates extensively, respecting, however, her own style and her personal brand’s values.

 

HOW TO PROCEED?

 

Collaborative projects can seem like a no-brainer at first, but to be successful they have to be carefully planned. Brand values match is a must, but setting clear targets and deadlines as well as creating actionable marketing plans is necessary. This may work out naturally for some, more often for brand owners who are used to dealing with planning and setting KPIs. Rigorous planning and targets’ setting can be daunting for others, often artists, who may feel that their creative process is being over-controlled and micromanaged. This is where intermediary agencies and independent consultants can be useful as they will help respect the interests of both parties, control the process and protect the DNAs of the brands and artistic practices. However, in the current mutating market, the flexibility and initiative of emerging artists and independent brands matter more every day. Without the bureaucratic and production restrictions often faced by corporations, new alliances can thrive. They make a difference by setting examples of best practices, sustainably supporting the artists directly and becoming first encounters with the art market for consumers.

 


Anastasia Lander is a marketing and communications professional with 18 years of diverse experience in working with brands ranging from M.A.C. Cosmetics and Dior to Unilever portfolio. Lander holds a Master’s degree in Art Business with Distinction from the Sotheby’s Institute of Art in London where she is also Member of the Governing Body. She is the founder of Lander Comms, where she creates communication strategies for brands and artists. Lander is Executive Director of the not-for-profit Young Masters Art Prize, a member of the Association of Women in the Arts (AWITA) and Bloom UK, a professional network for women in communications.

New tendencies in the online art market: price transparency and the “behavioural surplus”

Imagine you are walking in Mayfair and you are attracted by a shiny window of one of the many world-class art galleries of the neighbourhood. You walk in, politely greet the front desk staff, ask for the press release, and then you finally start filling your eyes with some of the most representative artworks of our contemporary culture. Nevertheless, while you are wandering in the space, a burning question pops into your mind: how much will these artworks cost? If you are brave enough – or, maybe, I should say naïve – you might decide to ease the burden of your doubt and go and ask the gallery assistant, who is very likely to graciously smile at you and ask: are you already our client? This situation does not stand in the realm of the hypotheses, it is actually an incredibly common “protocol” adopted by most of the blue-chip galleries.

 

The lack of transparency of the art market is not a breaking news. However, a further distinction needs to be made between the primary and the secondary market. The opacity of the latter, indeed, has sharply decreased over the years due to the inception of price databases such as Artnet, the first company to gather and publish sales prices of auctioned artworks. Despite the success of its service amongst collectors, according to Artnet’s CEO Jacob Pabst, big auction houses and art galleries did not appreciate the mission of the company, which had to wait over a decade to finally become profitable, demonstrating that its aim was not to replace a system, but to enhance its operations. Conversely, the primary market is a proper Dantesque selva oscura, full of undercover art advisors, transactions between anonymous parties, and stoical gatekeepers who work hard behind the scenes to keep their interests safe.

 

The centuries-old art market has proven to be extensively resistant to innovations, however, even its most conservative players had to acknowledge the increasing relevance of the digital space. According to the Art Basel and UBS Art Market Report 2020, the online art market has been thriving for the past five years, accounting for $5.9 billion in 2019, but its growth rate is slowing down, with lack of trust and transparency as the main attributable factors.

 

New tendencies in the online art market: price transparency and the “behavioural surplus” ArtTactic

Source: The Art Market Report 2020, Art Basel & UBS

 

Most certainly, the snapshot of the online art market will look completely different in next year’s reports, as the coming of the global pandemic forced all the market players to move their entire businesses into the digital space. The digital realm has always been seen as complementary to the offline art market, made by private viewings, VIP programmes and collectors’ lounges. However, due to the absence of the physical art world induced by the pandemic, the online world is currently the only available one. Indeed, the COVID-19 outbreak provoked a forceful boost in the development of online platforms and having a strong e-commerce has become the key to keep the sales on an economically sustainable level.

 

A noticeable change happened in the art fairs sector, which has been obviously highly impacted by the pandemic and its consequent travel bans. Art Basel Hong Kong online viewing rooms debuted at the end of March, paving the way for the shift from offline to the virtual world. I remember looking at the “booths” of my favourite galleries, and then only later noticing tiny numeric digits just below the artworks: prices. Price transparency in the context of an art fair is something that you don’t frequently see even in “live” editions, where sales people are often trained to politely decline to declare price ranges. Art Basel Global Director, Marc Spiegler, explained in an interview that the decision of including prices has been made after careful consideration of whether this could have been a winning strategy to encourage and speed up the acquisition process. A few weeks later, Frieze Viewing Rooms New York followed in persuading its participants to make prices publicly available and, according to its New York Director Loring Randolph, the missing face-to-face interaction with potential collectors can be overcome by tearing down as many barriers as possible. You can listen to ArtTactic’s podcast with Loring Randolph on this topic here.

 

In the midst of the enthusiasm for this sign of further democratisation of a well-known elitist industry, we all have lost sight of what could be a real game changer in the long term, that is the unprecedented availability of user data from the primary market. Indeed, when we consent to the use of cookies we are giving permission to the website owner to track our movements within the website, what items we click on, and the amount of time we spend on each of them. This information becomes incredibly valuable as they form what the Harvard professor and writer Shoshana Zuboff calls “behavioural surplus”, meaning that this data gives insight into consumers’ behaviour and, consequently, can be used to predict – and to influence – the market of the future. Apparently, the upcoming virtual edition of Art Basel will provide its exhibitors with this kind of analytics that will allow galleries to perform quantitative analysis and to understand which artworks received the highest number of views or which ones induced tangible actions. Moreover, platforms such as Art Basel and Frieze online viewing rooms require visitors to log into an account or to provide personal information like full name, phone number and email address. Consequently, art dealers now have all the ingredients to create identifiable individual profiles that outline the user preferences and that could be used to implement personalisation engines.

 

It is too soon to say whether the art market is ready to strategically benefit from the behavioural surplus, but it is for sure acknowledging that data availability can be turned from being considered as a threat to becoming the most valuable asset. A question that might arise and that would deserve further speculation is whether – in the context of a demand-offer logic – raw data from the primary market will ultimately influence the production of artworks, and therefore our contemporary culture itself. Only time will tell.

 


Olimpia Saccone is a London-based art business professional specialised in communications and business development within the sector. Olimpia earned a Master’s degree in Art Business with distinction from the Sotheby’s Institute of Art in London where she also was a guest lecturer for the semester course Art of the Luxury. Following her research interests in the art market ecosystem and in the artists’ career trajectory, Olimpia worked for a talent agency for emerging artists as a business development manager, and she was in charge of commercial partnerships. She is currently advising emerging artists shortlisted for the Ashurst Emerging Artist Prize and she is a contributor to LVH Journal. Olimpia is a member of The International Art Market Studies Association. 

Wet Paint and Artist Market Trajectories

Adrian Ghenie’s ‘wet paint’ lot, The Bridge (2015), which sold for $3.3 million in 2016 at Christie’s in New York – just one year after its creation date.

 
 

I’m really excited about our new market analysis, Wet Paint Market Report 2015-2019. It’s a good one and one that was different for us to design, analyze, and write. In this report we’ve looked at art works that have been put up for auction within 3 years or less of their creation dates. These paintings (and also sculptures, photography, and works on paper) have changed hands faster than the paint can dry.

 

Generally, when talking about a ‘wet paint’ market the term ‘flipping’ is often mentioned. For some in the art world, flipping is a dirty word and denotes speculative buying practices that can harm artists’ careers, especially those just emerging. Flipping can often lead to rapid run-ups in auction prices, which results in a shift in an artist’s career trajectory causing a temporary disequilibrium between economic and cultural value associated with the artist’s market. We outline this in-depth in our Wet Paint Market Report. A strong case study often used when discussing the impacts of flipping is Zombie Formalism – a term coined by artist and critic, Walter Robinson in 2014 to describe a group of young artists who received unprecedented market speculation.

 

Beginning in 2011, artworks grounded in Abstract Expressionism that incorporated ‘theatrics’ (such as employing fire extinguishers or deploying chewing gum) created buzz in the art world. Critics, like Jerry Saltz, described the works as ‘easily digestible’, ‘decorator-friendly’, and ‘tailor-made for instant digital distribution and viewing’ – a.k.a. Zombie Formalism was made for the market and appealed to the masses, not those who were privy to the inner-workings of the art world. This new group of work arose at an opportune moment when young, new-comer collectors were looking to invest in alternative assets like art. And as a result of speculative practices, ‘bidding wars sent individual works to totals more than 3,000% beyond their prices just two years earlier’.

 

But by 2015, the tides had changed. And many of the young artists caught in the flipping cross-fire were met with a non-existent, toppling market. Proving that extreme and quick success is not sustainable without the foundations of institutional and discursive support. The Zombie Formalists (as identified by critics and press coverage, and outlined by Artnet) include: Tauba Auerbach (b. 1981), Oscar Murillo (b. 1986), Alex Israel (b. 1982), David Ostrowski (b. 1981), Lucien Smith (b. 1989), Dan Rees (b. 1982), Chen Fei (b. 1983), Jacob Kassay (b. 1984), Wyatt Kahn (b. 1983), Nick Darmstaedter (b. 1988), Israel Lund (b. 1980), Hugh Scott-Douglas (b.1988), Ethan Cook (b.1983), Parker Ito (b. 1986) and Angel Otero (b.1981). This isn’t to say that all of these artists’ markets have suffered the consequences of market speculation – in fact, Tauba Auerbach featured very positively in our May 2020 Contemporary Art Market Confidence Report, both in short- and long-term confidence rankings.

 

Post-Zombie Formalism apocalypse, we report that the Wet Paint market continues to play a significant role in the market for younger artists. 40.6% of the lots in our data sample were from artists aged 45 and under. Among them was Romanian artist, Adrian Ghenie (b. 1977) whose recently created artworks (created within 3 years or less) accounted for 19.4% of total lots sold and 21.6% of overall auction sales value for the artist in the period 2015 to 2019. 2016 was a peak year for Ghenie, both in terms of lots offered and sales value, making up 62.2% of his Wet Paint market total. The artist’s Wet Paint market has waned since then, with no sales reported in 2018 and $1.1 million in sales in 2019 – suggesting that the level of speculation in his market has faded in recent years.

 

Wet Paint and Artist Market Trajectories ArtTactic

 

The intricacy of calibrating an artist’s career trajectory is exemplified by Ghenie’s market. In 2015, Ghenie told The New York Times at the Venice Biennale that he was aware of art market pressures and that he felt the speculation growing around him as an emerging artist. He was, of course, spot on. Ghenie’s market began to build several years prior in 2009 when François Pinault acquired Nickelodeon (2008) and really began to pick up steam when he exhibited at the Palazzo Grassi museum in Venice in 2011. Then, in 2015, Ghenie produced a three-part exhibition for the Romanian pavilion at the 56th Venice Biennale. These key activities (amongst many others) provided the foundation for new price levels (both on the primary and secondary markets) to be achieved for the artist.

 

2011 was the artist’s first appearance at auction where Swimming Pool (2006) sold for £13,925 ($22,500) at Phillips in New York. In two years since this sale, Dr. Mengele (2011) sells for £121,250 at Sotheby’s in London and in 2014, Fake Rothko (2010) achieves £1.4 million. 2016 brought another auction record breaking year for the artist when Nickelodeon (2008) sold for £7.1 million at Christie’s in London – over 500-times the auction record achieved 5 years prior. All prices include buyer’s premium.

 

This delicate dance between economic and cultural value was (and is) no better understood than by Ghenie’s galleries then and now (he’s currently with Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Nicodim Gallery and Pace Gallery). Gallerist, Thaddaeus Ropac was quoted in 2016 saying, ‘We’re working on major museum shows because this is what he needs now, not another auction record’. I think this was hugely important to recognize and perhaps the life vest Ghenie needed to be saved from market over-speculation.

 

Today, the speculation around Ghenie’s market seems to have faded. Though, I look forward to seeing if he conquered the art market on ‘fast-forward’ once and for all. And for this, only time will tell. In the short term, things are looking promising for him, as he ranks 8 (out of top 10) on our short-term confidence index for on-the-rise artists.

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Through our analysis we found that a large component of the wet paint market is driven by sales for charity – 42% in 2019. Therefore, our report also provides insight into charitable donations from artists and their galleries, and looks into what impact and role these sales have on the market today. Read the full report here.

Announcing KAWS: New Artist Market Report

KAWS, GONE, at NGV, Melbourne

 

KAWS. The moniker hardly needs an introduction now that Brian Donnelly’s international fame and loyal fan base, of both collectibles and blue-chip collectors alike, has been developing since the 1990s and a topic of conversation in the public eye of mass media for a decade. The Jersey City native is the latest to be featured by ArtTactic in KAWS: Artist Market Report in continuation from our series of artist focused reports on market movers, which include extensive in-depth summative reviews of curatorial histories, analysis of public and private avenues including brand collaborations, market performance analytics and additional proprietary evaluations. Mentioned in the UBS Art Market Report 2020 with a total yearly market of $108 million in 2019 (including buyer’s premium), Donnelly’s momentous market growth was a significant contribution to the youngest segment of the Post-War and Contemporary Market; 23% of the total volume consisting of works made within the last 20 years. Whether chosen solely for its illustrative allure or as a reverse of “S.W.A.K.”, an early twentieth century phrase meaning “Sealed with a Kiss” and recycled by SoCal’s Raymond Pettibon, the four letters of KAWS may very well be engraved into the annals of art history for perpetuity. 

 

KAWS today

 

One of the early dominoes that set this phenomena in motion was Donnelly’s omnipresent COMPANION, produced in a limited first edition of 1,500 toys with the Japanese streetwear brand Bounty Hunter in 1999. Plainly explained as an altered Mickey Mouse with KAWS’ signature skull and crossbone head and X-ed out eyes (developed from his graffiti days vandalizing Calvin Klein ads in NYC, and metaphorically described as the main protagonist of lonely and weary innocent dreams in his cast of recurring character motifs) COMPANION has grown with the acceleration of the artist’s career, figuratively and literally. From 7.75 inches in 1999 to a 121-foot long inflatable that has traveled the world and made headlines at CNN and TIME Magazine when it was installed in Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbor in 2019, the 21-year-old COMPANION has now graduated to AR (Augmented Reality).

 

The recent global launch of KAWS’ collaboration with Acute Art saw COMPANION (EXPANDED HOLIDAY), a two week long exhibition taking place simultaneously in twelve major cities across the world featuring a large-scale AR COMPANION floating in the clouds. Originally from March 12th to March 26th, the exhibition has been extended, except in Doha and Melbourne, with the New York location switched from Times Square to the Brooklyn Museum. In London, it can be viewed through the Acute Art app hovering over the Thames by Millenium Bridge. 

 

Acute Art is widely referenced as a VR and AR Production House, however it’s actual leverage is well beyond a technical assist. With a fresh history of working with artists such as Marina Abramović, Olafur Eliasson, Cao Fei, Jeff Koons and Antony Gormley, Acute Art is not just a gateway to other realities, it is a platform where collectors can purchase limited editions at timely drops, trade, sell, share and swap. This massive global display of KAWS across continents is an acquisition call to collectors at all tiers. From $6.99 a day for a time-based acquisition of one sculpture to $10,000 to own COMPANION (EXPANDED), a 1.8 meter AR Sculpture part of an edition of 25 plus five artist proofs. The latest AR drops have been in concert with his album art collaboration with American rapper and musician Travis Scott, whose new single with Kid Cudi ‘THE SCOTTS’ has been deemed the top stream in 2020 on Spotify. With this pairing of Acute Art and KAWS, not to mention ‘THE SCOTTS’ vinyl on its third and final release, democratization of art has squarely hit a new level. 

 

Aside from this major campaign, KAWS has also been active during the current pandemic, selling limited edition shaped prints through his Instagram @kaws aimed at his 2.9 million fan following. In order to acquire the prints, priced at $1,200 and editioned at 25 plus five artist proofs, interested parties must request by email. The effort to directly help the following charities went underway from April 10th to the 17th: FreeArtsNYC, Henry Street Settlement, Food Bank NYC, Jersey City COVID-19 Relief Fund, and the Maimonides Medical Hospital in Brooklyn.

 

KAWSation and Correlation

 

Our data dive into the world of KAWS shows a healthy international following, with 40% of auction value achieved in Hong Kong over the complete span of Donnelly’s secondary market appearances, from 2008 to present date. With an increase in total market value from 2018 to 2019 of 238%, last year’s sales outperformed pre-sale mid-estimate values by 40%. This surge in demand has resulted in a 200% average price increase for repeat sales, with the highest return set at 396% for Untitled (Kimpsons 6 Package Painting Series), a paradox of a sixteen inch square painting that has been packaged in plastic with a cardboard backing. More insights from the Repeat Sale Analysis can be found within the report, along with details regarding price segmentation, sell-through rate, career to market contexts, full market breakdowns of paintings, prints and sculpture, and more. 

 

To elaborate on the remarkable year that KAWS’ work experienced at auction, nine of the top ten records were achieved in 2019. These paintings range across motifs and themes, as many of his characters hit blue chip status. At number four is In the Woods (2002), a triptych featuring the artist’s rendition of Disney’s Snow White among her forest friends, which sold for $3.2 million at Christie’s last May. The Walk Home (2012) shows KAWS’ Spongebob riff with arms raised in alarm and sold the same week at Phillips, generating just under $6 million on an estimate of $600,000 to $800,000, achieving 8.5 times the mid-estimate. The largest canvas from the artist’s KIMPSONS series, Untitled (Kimpsons #1) (2004) sold this past October for $6.2 million, and at the top is another KIMPSONS work, The KAWS Album (2005), which sold in April of 2019 for $12.7 million at Sotheby’s in Hong Kong.    

 

The KAWStroversy

 

The overwhelming stratifications of KAWS’ audience and price segments in relation to his mass popularity is not the normal triple threat that the art world is used to handling, and in many instances exerting a modicum of control over. While KAWS has now been exclusively represented by Skarstedt for almost a year, after working with Perrotin since 2008 and joint representation for a year and a half, his work has not yet been greeted with gusto at every level of curatorial acclaim, but that may soon be changing with a major museum survey ongoing at the National Gallery of Victoria, and a substantial exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum planned for 2021.  

 

Controversy surrounding the high prices at auction that collectors were willing to pay spiked in the media around the time of the record $12.7 million sale, and certainly in the wake of it. In late March of last year, Artnet’s feature on KAWS breaking the rules cited advisor Josh Baer of The Baer Faxt as skeptical of KAWS’ lasting power, questioning the true cultural depth and significance that the artist’s work will retain in a twenty-year hindsight. Then spurred by the April 1st sale, The Art Newspaper’s Anny Shaw remarked on the superficial nature of the work in her opinion piece “Why KAWS is not a great artist”, calling it “sheer conceptual bankruptcy”. 

 

The following month, a special editorial in The New York Times featured the artist and his rocket trajectory. In the article, Donnelly is aware of the art world’s scrutiny of his meteoric rise from “bottom to top”, and Anne Pasternak, Director of the Brooklyn Museum shed some light on the decision to give the artist a major survey in 2021. Picked up by Artnet, ArtCritique and making a later appearance in the South China Morning Post, Pasternak’s insight is as follows: 

 

“It makes the art world uncomfortable,” said Anne Pasternak, the director of the Brooklyn Museum. “But Brian doesn’t respect those traditional hierarchies.” Ms. Pasternak took time to come around, too. “I didn’t see the appeal initially,” she said of his work. “But artists love him. They all said, ‘Go visit him. ’And I’ve learned to listen to artists.” (From The New York Times, XX Marks the Spot: KAWS Goes Global)

 

And so, it’s possible that the tables have now turned with William S. Smith, Editor of Art in America, taking a stand last September with his in-depth critique that perhaps puts the one-off cursory comments to shame in “What the Rise of KAWS Says About the Art World’s Ailments”. Addressing the heart of Donnelly’s quest for universal relatability and familiarity as a way to connect as well as the varied cultural ties in the artist’s aesthetic and business getting, Smith writes that the preoccupation with death and loneliness doesn’t discriminate across demographics and sympathizes with the human condition. His words, “If the art world gatekeepers dismiss these objects out of hand, they risk missing in the image of weakness a moment of self-recognition,” seem to cut through the noise and grant fresh eyes to a club that never stopped looking for the next hoop that KAWS will need to jump through. 

 

KAWS tomorrow

 

The controversy itself may signal KAWS’ success just as well as the climbing auction prices. It is the nature of our credo that movements overtake their predecessors by offering innovative answers to the dictating question ‘What is Art?’ in light of the new and changing forces that will define the zeitgeist of tomorrow. It is more likely that Donnelly has slipped under this radar for so long because rather than part of a neat group that can be classified by historians as a “School”, the ubiquitous movement of KAWS has been made on the ground and at the individual level, a phenomena that may become increasingly more apparent in our time. 

 

With a title that is more pertinent than ever, KAWS: Companionship in the Age of Loneliness is the September 20, 2019 – April 13, 2020 survey which is now virtually accessible on The National Gallery of Victoria’s website. The exhibition of over 100 works features the vast range of Donnelly’s productivity over the years and also prominently announces the largest bronze sculpture that KAWS has ever created, a massive commission titled GONE that is situated in the inner courtyard and was assembled from twelve pieces over five days, reaching a height of nearly twenty-three feet tall and weighing fourteen tons. The monument is, of course, none other than COMPANION, holding a lifeless muppet in its arms that the artist calls “BFF”. 

 

Despite the rounded cartoonish nature of the KAWS aesthetic, like many of the artist’s works it is a dark scene. COMPANION stands resolutely solid and in control, with the same sense of assuredness and carrying-on seen in one of the preeminent early COMPANION sculptures, COMPANION (Clean Slate), which sold in November of 2018 at Phillips for a hammer price of $1.65 million. With one foot almost always in mid-step, it is a message grounded in reality that moving forward is moving on, and that we may need to carry each other to make it through.

A Note on Institutional Relationships in the Age of Corona

#GettyMuseumChallenge of James McNeil Whistler’s Milly Finch, 1883-84 by @rotten.puddn

 

Last Wednesday, the Association of Art Museum Directors (AAMD) of North America released a statement reporting that it will not penalize its members, 227 art museums across the United States, Canada and Mexico, if they choose to reallocate funds from their endowments, trusts and income from deaccessioned objects towards operating costs, if necessary. This is the unfortunate reality for many museums around the world, if they are lucky enough to have ample stores to tap and can navigate through often-tight legal restrictions. While The Metropolitan Museum of Art may take a loss of $100 million, nearly a third of its yearly operating budget, its endowment figure is a staggering $3.6 billion, whereas smaller institutions are in critical need and struggling to survive. For example, Charleston, a farmhouse in East Sussex that celebrates the lives and works of the early 20th century Bloomsbury Group, is appealing to emergency crowdfunding in order to seek the £400,000 they will need to make it through the coming months. Despite this backdrop of financial duress, layoffs and furloughs in the US and uncertainty in the UK, institutions are making a global concerted effort to reach out to their audiences through online channels and social media to offer an outlet, a chance to engage with inspiration and remind all of us of the history, beauty, wonder and resilience of humankind. 

 

Resources for Online Institutional Engagement

Impressive social media efforts are actively underway as museums also come together on Instagram and Twitter to support each other. On March 25, Artnet told the story of #MuseumBouquet, a hashtag used by institutions as they compassionately sent each other floral arrangements from their collections via Instagram. Apart from well wishes, museums are also providing resources and social media tips for their sector. The Virginia Association of Museums has detailed a comprehensive list that includes tips for social media engagement as well as the Smithsonian Institution’s Facebook 101

 

Entrenched in the space of museum consultancy and driving viewer engagement is Cuseum, a technical partner for institutions that has cultivated a profound list of clients, such as the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Pérez Art Museum in Miami and around 100 others while currently holding five patents with another three pending. Founded in 2014 by Brendan Ciecko, a serial tech entrepreneur whose early career awarded him the cover of Inc. Magazine in 2008, they specialize in mobile engagement, digital membership and augmented reality. Cuseum is busy providing free webinars and social media engagement tips for the sector during this time. Register here for tonight’s webinar “Membership Mondays: Fulfillment, Renewals and Budgets in Membership During Coronavirus” at 8 PM BST / 3PM EST and register here for Wednesday’s “Collaborating on Virtual Educational Programs During Coronavirus.” One of the many tips Ciecko and Cuseum are encouraging is to think creatively in terms of live content engagement, for example, The Broad Museum in Los Angeles has continuously released four parts of a light and sound series inspired by their Yayoi Kusama’s Infinity Room, titled Infinite Drone on Instagram Live; it also lives on their Youtube channel

 

Cuseum’s success in this space hints at a wealth of museum experiences just waiting to be tapped into online. Here are some exceptional visual opportunities, many created pre-Covid, to explore through the websites of some of the world’s most historic, illuminary, and in one case— holy, institutions. The Vatican Museum has seven galleries available on a 360-degree virtual tour, including the divine Sistine Chapel. The Louvre has four galleries displayed in interactive virtual tours, and the Sharjah Art Museum of the United Arab Emirates hosts a viewer-led online replica of their Modern and Contemporary Wing. Apart from these spatial walkthroughs, The British Museum hosts a digital timeline, created with the partnership of Google, that allows viewers to roam through centuries of objects and see webs of connections data-woven together from linear influence and like attributes. While these experiences require the viewer to visit them, there are also engagement opportunities found in viewer’s own social media feeds that are now checked 21% more often in the United Kingdom and Germany, 27% higher in France, 32% in the United States, 49% in Spain and 52% in Italy, as of March 2020, according to Statista, who survey sampled media usage from March 16th to the 20th. 

 

The RA on Twitter and Instagram 

The Royal Academy’s Adam Koszary was featured in The New York Times at the end of last month for stirring up the Twitterspace, asking followers for drawings of hams on behalf of the 252 year old institution (receiving 6,900 likes, 1,900 retweets and 391 comments on one post). Koszary’s journey to the RA was in part due to how well his natural cheeky and humorous persona shone through the platform when he was creating content for a small agricultural museum, The Museum of English Rural Life. After a short stint at Tesla, having been poached by Elon Musk through the 140-character-limit platform, Koszary found his home back in the museum sphere at The Royal Academy this past February. Identified throughout the museum sector as a force and example, Koszary notes that social media is meant to be “collaborative and democratic”. The latest posts have seen the hashtag #RAdailydoodle, while requests range from drawing bluebells to fat birds. From April 11th to 18th, ten @royalacademy posts bearing this hashtag generated 220 comments using the #RAdailydoodle, out of a total 552 comments, 1,660 likes and 370 retweets, from their pool of 437,900 followers. 

 

In tandem to Koszary’s tweets, the Instagram team @royalacademyarts are engaging their similarly sized audience of 467,000 followers, with content that ranges from educational ideas for at-home sculptures with the family, breathing exercises, an animated Easter post and calls for their Young Artists Summer Show (submissions close this week on April 24). Perhaps most poignant to the art world is the pinned Instagram Story of Secretary and Executive Chief Alex Rüger’s personal message speaking from the courtyard of the RA, as he closed the doors of the institution at the onset of the crisis. In it, he promises that we will be hearing from their artists as they keep the community strong and Rüger, the former Director of the Van Gogh Museum for over a decade who transitioned to the RA in February of 2019, has made good on that promise. This past Thursday, as part of their #ArtistsinIsolation series, Contemporary giant Ai Weiwei was featured on their Instagram Story, speaking directly to the RA’s audience and the art world at home. The full video lives on their website, where his message begins, “Hello, this is a message for the Royal Academy. This is a very difficult time, especially for England and for Europe. I think we have to stay strong. We have to believe art always wins. At a time like this, humanity is most important…” The series has so far also included Stephen Farthing RA and Rebecca Salter PRA, who believes “These are difficult times for everyone – but art thrives in a crisis.”

 

While Contemporary artists speak to us today, the previously mentioned Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam speaks from the past. On the same Thursday, the museum posted Field with Irises near Arles (1888) by Vincent, alongside an excerpt from one of his famous letters to his brother Theo, dated 1878, “Woe-spiritedness is quite a good thing to have, if only one writes it as two words, woe is in all people, everyone has reason enough for it, but one must also have spirit, the more the better, and it is good to be someone who never despairs.” Liked by thousands with 128 comments as of yesterday, the engagement from this post is a small sample of the 3.2 million followers that @vangoghmuseum shares between Instagram and Twitter, at an even split.

 

Museum Engagement Across Twitter and Instagram

Five years ago, an in-depth study of the presence on Facebook and Twitter of 57 European museums was conducted by Kostas Zafiropoulos, Vasiliki Vrana and Konstantinos Antoniadis and published in the Journal of Tourism, Heritage and Services Marketing. Activity and engagement was determined from a sample recorded from March 2-5, 2015 and a wealth of information is provided from that time that paints a near-holistic view of the institutional engagement through these platforms including measurements of popularity, activity, visits and reached demographics. Focusing in on the top nine institutions with the highest engagement levels, the Van Gogh Museum was the only single artist museum of the group and stood with the Museo del Prado, British Museum, Tate Britain, Centre Pompidou, Museo Reina Sofia, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, The National Gallery and the Musée du Louvre. On Twitter in 2015, these nine museums had an average audience of 383,500 followers. As of yesterday, these nine institutions have an average of 1,534,789, suggesting an increase of 224,117 followers and average growth of 32% year-on-year.

 

A Note on Institutional Relationships in the Age of Corona ArtTactic

 

ArtTactic has been actively tracking museum metrics with the rise of Instagram in our work with Hiscox to produce the Hiscox Online Art Trade Report. Since 2016, we’ve looked at the growth of followers on Instagram across four heavyweights in the museum sphere, The Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Guggenheim, and The Tate. Starting in 2016 with a range from 573,000 followers of the Tate to the 1.3 million followers of The Museum of Modern Art, the range increased by 2020 to 2.5 million viewers engaged by The Guggenheim to The Museum of Modern Art’s 5 million. Average year on year growth for this time period across all four was 24%, with the Tate leading at 31%. 

 

A Note on Institutional Relationships in the Age of Corona ArtTactic

 

With the intersection of data from Instagram and Twitter showing that the Tate has a larger audience on Twitter by a staggering 1.4 million user accounts, we explored how the other three institutions’ Twitter accounts compared as well. All four museums boast larger followings on Twitter, at an average of 800,000 more each, with the Tate retaining the most drastic difference and The Museum of Modern Art having the most similar audience, with a Twitter following of 5.3 million, only 200,000 more followers than their Instagram account. Looking to macro-factors to explain this phenomena, as we understand the importance of Instagram in the art world especially for collectors and art market players, we posited that perhaps more people live on Twitter as a whole. However, according to the latest data as of January 2020 from Statista, Twitter’s 340 million active users appear rather meager compared to the 1 billion active Instagram accounts. Platforms that take the cake above Twitter as well include Snapchat, Sina Weibo, Reddit, TikTok and others. From our perspective, the overall growing popularity of museums on these platforms, at the very positive growth rates of 24% for Instagram and 32% for Twitter, show that there is healthy demand for engagement from these historic institutions and the public arts sector, with room to grow.  

 

In the Age of Corona 

Returning to the moment, we’ve also looked at the conversations with museums across Instagram and Twitter that have bloomed in compensation of the stay at home orders around the world. Lists of hashtags have been published as more join in, and we’ve created our own as well. In order of descending popularity, the following were identified through Instagram as some of the most prevalent tags during this time: 

 

#instamuseum #museumfromhome #betweenartandquarantine #gettymuseumchallenge #artinquarantine #musesocial #virtualmuseum #onlinemuseum #closedbutopen #digitalmuseum #museummomentofzen #museumsathome #museoencasa #museumsandchill #artistsinisolation #artcanhelp #archiveshashtagparty

 

#Instamuseum leads with 242,000 posts, probably due to its pre-Covid origins, whereas #museumfromhome, born as a direct result of the current pandemic, has 47,100 posts. Other top tags #betweenartandquarantine, #gettymuseumchallenge, #artinquarantine, and #musesocial boast between 10,000 and 16,500 posts. Notably, the #gettymuseumchallenge has garnered 12,600 hits and become a true social media sensation that’s made mainstream headlines, as art lovers at home dress up and imitate their favorite works of art, complete with props and pets. We looked at the activity of these hashtags on Twitter over the course of the last week, from April 11th to the 18th, and found that on this platform, #gettymuseumchallenge was the most popular, tagged 27,047 times, with #museumfromhome second, at 19,810. On Facebook, #museumfromhome stands out above all with 16,000 posts compared to numbers at 1,000 or less for the rest. While our data for Instagram and Facebook reflect an entire conversation, the numbers from Twitter are solely a sample of the last week, suggesting that these numbers could potentially be more viral than they appear here. 

 

Final Thoughts

What do these numbers really represent? This portrayal of connectivity is difficult to describe in encapsulating words that assuredly will not do the thousands of comments, likes, and photos and the associated laughs, tears, wonder and inspiration justice. It is an immense outpouring of emotion centered around our mutual love of art, creativity and history, as we look to sources of spiritual elevation during this trying time. However, this is all solely a reflection of the depth of meaning these institutions have in our lives. Perhaps it is better to instead share a single engagement rather than speak to the whole: 

 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York celebrates its 150th anniversary this year, and in commemoration, they are asking their members, visitors and global audience to share a personal story about their experience with the institution. On Instagram using the #mymetstory, we found this post by @muldermuseum (reposted by the Met), “I first visited The Met on vacation with my parents when I was nine years old, and that visit changed my life. I remember turning the corner in the Egyptian galleries and my breath catching at the sight of the Temple of Dendur. It felt impossible—like discovering magic or time travel was real, that I could live with one foot in the 21st century and the other in ancient Egypt. Until that moment I hadn’t realized museums were such powerful places….” At the end of the post, it’s revealed that David Mulder is about to embark on postgraduate education in the history of Ancient Mesopotamian and Near Eastern Art, and the posts on his account chronicle a passion that has brought Mulder to  collections and sites spanning across continents, in cities such as Paris, Berlin, London, Haifa, Philadelphia, and many more. 

 

Leaving the steps of the Met, a 17 minute walk through Central Park to the Upper West Side will bring you to the doors of New York’s first and oldest museum, The New York Historical Society, located adjacent to the eminent American Museum of Natural History. Established in 1804, the institution has been charged with the preservation of the city’s history through a vast collection of documents, objects, art and artifacts, and as part of their ongoing acquisition program, they are currently soliciting objects from New Yorkers to record this historic moment, as they find themselves at the center of this ravaging pandemic. Along with these objects, data being created in this moment will also have a life after this, and we will be able to look back a hundred years from now to see what art exhibitions and museums looked like, and how the world came together in this moment, celebrating our culture and what it means to be human, while we wait to go outside. 

 

This is a reminder that while our days and sense of time are being displaced, history is still being made, and that this too, shall pass.

What about the artists?

When I sat down to write my Master’s dissertation and later, my contribution for the TEFAF Art Market Report, I had one thing in mind: artists. I’ve always believed (and still do) that without artists we would not have an art market and that, consequently, artists should have more of a stake in the art world. But the unfortunate reality is that over time, and as history progresses, the majority of artists and their work have been silently pushed further down the food chain. To combat this, I argue that there needs to be university-based mechanisms in place to give artists that “leg-up” in terms of career preparation and professional survival. Now, with a growing global pandemic at hand, this sentiment is increasingly becoming more important to consider. In this editorial, I re-examine key points of my research on career preparation and incubation models for fine artists through the lens of the Covid-19 pandemic.

 

In society there is general confusion as to what studying an artistic subject really means. Nigel Carrington, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Arts London, in RA Magazine acknowledged that “the narrative about the instrumental value of a degree in terms of earnings defines outcomes in a very simplistic way”. While the value of education is partly economic, it is mainly valuable in terms of developing an “innovative, informed, democratic, robust, and varied society”. Nevertheless, even with a fine arts degree, artists are subjected to a difficult career trajectory after graduating from art universities. Artistic labor remains largely undervalued and forces artists to take on subsidiary work in areas unrelated to their art in order to maintain an adequate standard of living. This concept of the “hyphenated artist” describes the majority of artists post-graduation. These sentiments were recently echoed by the art logistics company, Dietl, in the wake of Covid-19. In the beginning of April, Dietl launched an online platform to sell works of art by laid-off art technicians. According to the founder of the company, Fritz Dietl, art handlers are often artists subsidizing their practice with income from temporary gigs at fairs, galleries, and museums. In an interview with The Art Newspaper, Dietl stated, “We realized that [artists] are extremely vulnerable in the current economic crisis with absolutely no safety net and no chance for any income in the foreseeable future, but they are the silent, incredibly talented and necessary force behind-the-scenes—the art world, in normal times, simply cannot function without them.”

 

There are mechanisms in place for students studying subjects such as business, technology, and design to increase their chances of commercial success and professional survival after graduating with a university degree. Over the last decade, universities around the world have become increasingly entrepreneurial along many dimensions especially with the implementation of programs to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. Incubation programs, or simply incubators, are one of such programs that have grown in popularity within the higher education landscape. Incubators support young businesses or entrepreneurs through the early and fragile stages of growth. According to the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy Report, this support can help early stage businesses and entrepreneurs “avoid the mistakes of others, save time and money, and increase survival rates”. The report asserts that this, in turn, “has consequences for job creation, regional development, innovation, and economic growth”. Interestingly, incubators have not become a key fixture at universities for fine art students. For example, according to Nesta, in Britain, there are 105 registered university-based incubators, primarily at business, technology, and design schools; there are currently no university-based incubator programs offered at art schools for fine art students. Could fine art graduates benefit from utilizing a university-based incubator? Could a university-based incubation program help artists succeed?

 

As schools across the globe close their campuses and transition to online courses due to Covid-19, many graduate art students are left wondering how they will continue their studies without the studio space, one-on-one critiques, exhibition opportunities, and other hands-on features that are a natural part of a contemporary art education. According to Artforum, more than 100 MFA students at the Yale School of Art are requesting that the university refund part of their semester tuition after the institution closed its studios and facilities. Boston University MFA candidates are also demanding tuition reimbursement arguing that the education being offered online “is not transposable to the programming [students] originally enrolled in—especially in such a short period of time—and students in [their] last semester have lost critical opportunities, such as final reviews of cumulative work and thesis exhibitions”. Boston University is refusing to grant their request. As I read this news, I can’t help but wonder—how is this pandemic going to impact our young artists, their work, network, and career trajectories – and at the most critical part of their development? And how will the “wartime” decision-making of universities reflect back on the institutions in the future?

 

Considering the plight of universities and the difficult career trajectory artists face, it could be advantageous for such institutions to begin to think strategically and incorporate platforms or mechanisms that will assist their students in mitigating risk post-graduation and increase the likelihood of professional survival. At the same time, implementation of such a program could enhance the image and value of universities moving forward. Further, in order to make a living in the creative arts, fine artists need to operate like entrepreneurs. Consequently, incubators could help artists develop their business skills to attract attention on the market. But what would this incubator configuration look like and how would it work? What are the features and components that would make this successful? And if there are challenges, how would they be overcome? I answer all of these questions, and pose more, in my research (which you can read here).

 

What about the artists? ArtTactic
Matthew Burrows launched the Artist Support Pledge on Instagram.

But for now, I push aside the discussion of trends and innovation in incubator models in reverence to the situation at hand. I feel it is more appropriate to reflect on the importance of artists, their resiliency, and their work at this time. Like artist, Matthew Burrows, who launched a simple pledge to encourage fellow artists to help each other as the art world shuts down. Burrows used Instagram to request artists to post pictures of their work for sale under £200 with the hashtag #ArtistSupportPledge, and each time their sales reach £1,000 they promise to buy another artist’s work for £200. He tells Artnet News that the project “was really in response to the current situation, a creative solution to how I might help myself but also friends and colleagues through this period, by utilizing the generosity of the arts community”. There are over 1,000 posts, which Burrows hopes to translate into 1,000 pledges. “That’s £1 million flowing into the hands of artists,” Burrows stated, “many of whom are in severe financial stress. It’s an ambitious target but easily achievable if people act generously and people get really great art out of this”.

 

Burrows is just one example of many that suggest we really do have more to learn from artists, especially at times like these.

 


Julia Valletta is a research-based marketing and communications professional specializing within the art and business sector. Julia has cross-industry experience designing, managing, conducting, and analyzing qualitative and quantitative research as well as developing marketing communications plans and messaging frameworks. She earned a Master’s degree in Art Business with distinction from Sotheby’s Institute of Art and holds a Bachelor’s degree in Communication from Boston University. Julia is currently a Research Assistant at ArtTactic and lives in London.

Market Shift: The Photography Auction Market 2019

El Lissitsky (1890-1941), Self Portrait (‘The Constructor’), 1924, Gelatin silver print, 24.4 x 27.9 cm. Auctioned on 6th March 2019 achieving a sale price of £947,250 including buyer’s premium. Courtesy of Christie’s. 

 

 

Released this past week, the Photography Auction Market 2019 report details the market performance of photographs sold across both sales dedicated to the collecting category and also Post-War & Contemporary evening and day auctions. Through comparing annual performance, dating back to 2015, the report outlines growing trends in the sector in terms of market activity and aesthetic bearing. Along with the breakdown of artists that came out ahead in 2019, descriptive summaries of the 25 topmost lots by value, corresponding performance evaluations, and sale format performance are also included. Notably, ArtTactic has identified a swell of the low market, up 31% from 2018, and has included a special focus on photography lots offered under the $5,000 mark.

 

On the Whole

Combined sales from the top three auction houses, Christie’s, Sotheby’s and Phillips saw an overall 15.5% decline from 2018, from $62.3 million to $52.7 million, with a decrease in the number of lots offered at 4.8%. While total sales in the market were down, Christie’s outperformed their 2018 achievements in this sector by 19%, largely due to an increase in sales dedicated to photography. Although the photography market has experienced this slight downturn, a trend continued from the 26.4% drop from 2017 to 2018, sales are still marginally higher than they were in 2015, by 1.6%. However, when comparing the number of lots sold in 2015 and 2019, the amount of lots sold in 2019 showed a 48% increase from 2015, further confirming our insight about the growing contribution of lower value lots to the photography market.  

 

Looking at the Past

While Contemporary photography retains a strong foothold with a total market share of 51%, this figure is down 7% from 2018. In its place, Modern photography has climbed 5% to account for 36% of the whole, with Vintage photography at an increase of 2%. Although only seeing a small increase in market share, Vintage photography was the sole segment to see an increase in total sales in 2019, experiencing a 4% rise to nearly $7 million, up from $6.69 million in 2018. The mere increase in the number of lots sold, at 1%, suggests that this bloom is evidence of more high profile lots offered throughout the year. 

 

Coming in tenth in the overall best-selling photography artist ranking, with sales at over $1.3 million, Lazar (El) Lissitzky (1890 – 1941) is the top Vintage segment artist for 2019 and is celebrated as a key figure of Russian Constructivism of the early 20th century. His “Self-Portrait (‘The Constructor’)” (1924) achieved a hammer price of £780,110 ($1,025,689) at Christie’s in London as part of a dedicated photography and design sale in early March of 2019. An extremely rare and well preserved gelatin silver print, the work symbolizes the full embrace that the artist, and many in the Soviet sponsored movement, gave to the new medium, through experimentations with photomontage, collage and incorporating text. Also a vision of the industrial attitudes of the Constructors, as ‘Art’ was synonymous with ‘work’ or ‘labor’, the composition features the artist’s hand and compass fixed with the artist’s line of sight, linking together concepts across the Russian avant-garde to the Bauhaus and Dadaism. 

 

Aside from the remarkable acquisition opportunity with the offer of the aforementioned Lissitzky, it seems that Vintage photography is experiencing a resurgence as Michael Hoppen, of Hoppen Gallery was quoted during Photo London art fair last May in The Art Newspaper as having a very positive outlook, “In the last six months, we’ve sold more vintage black-and-white photography than we have for many years. Collectors are definitely going back to traditional 20th-century photography.” Additionally, the sector praises the announcement of a brick and mortar exhibition space in the former residence of Roger-Viollet in the Saint-German-des-Prés of Paris, that will deal in reproductions from the eponymous archives and also that of the France-Soir newspaper set to open later this year. Echoing this greater trend, the shift towards historic Vintage photography appears to be unveiling itself in the auction market as well, as some evolving collectors alter course away from the Contemporary sector.

 

Action Under $5,000

As mentioned previously, we take a concentrated look at the apparent budding lower market of works with pre-sale mid-estimates less than $5,000, in the Photography Auction Market 2019 report. From 149 lots resulting in a total sales volume of over $524,000, the average price across this segment rose to $3,518, up by 6.3% from 2018. Christie’s was dominant in this price tier, accounting for 51% of market share, as opposed to Phillips and Sotheby’s at 30% and 19%, respectively. Market drive can be partially attributed to high performance and market activity for the top two artists that both had very sparse auction sales in this price segment across the last five years. 

 

Taking second place by a slim margin in sales for this price tier is the work of British photographer and photojournalist Bill Brandt (1904 – 1983), from a total of 14 lots. The artist’s socially conscious black-and-white images compiled in The English at Home (1936) and A Night in London (1938) created a name for the artist, who was inspired by the work of the Parisian documentary photography pioneer Eugene Atget, his early friendship with the poet Ezra Pound and a brief employment in the workshop of the Surrealism and Dada artist Man Ray. Brandt’s images were published by Lilliput, Harper’s Bazaar and Picture Post as he documented London during the war, and later as he captured the portraits of international art stars, like Salvador Dali and Henry Moore. The nature of his mature work looked back to his early Surrealist experiments and classic romantic elements such as the female nude. 

 

Early in 2018, The Museum of Modern Art partnered with Christie’s to offer 43 photographs by the artist from their permanent collection as part of an online-only series to strategically augment their photography acquisition fund. While given estimates for the works ranged from $2,000 – $10,000, the average sale price came in just over the high range of $10,000, with the highest achieving lot, the eye of Jean Arp, 1960 (lot 23), bringing in $35,000. While it’s possible that the 2019 ranking reflects a renewed interest in the year following this institutional sale, his recent popularity could also be attributed to the major undertaking “Bill Brandt / Henry Moore” that was planned to be on view currently, from 7th February to 31st May 2020, at The Hepworth Wakefield in West Yorkshire. This exhibition, also made possible by the Yale Center for British Art, details the relationship of the two artists through the war and afterwards, in over 200 artworks across collage, drawing, sculpture and photography.  

 

This breakout data presents a promising outlook of market growth in this tier for Bill Brandt and the top ranked artist, for details and information download the report here.